What is osteoarthritis of the joints and why it happened

The life of a person with osteoarthritis, it is divided into "before and after". Disease Before there were large and small, of joy, sometimes a small problem. Kun vain daily battle to silence and despair a normal life never to return. But you can solve this problem forever!

Deforming osteoarthritis of the knee

What is osteoarthritis

It is a disease of the joints, when the joint cartilage over time is destroyed, the articular ends of the bones modifierade, periarticular tissue degeneration in an active and thriving inflammation.

Causes and development

Osteoarthritis can develop because of excessive stress or damage to the joints. In any case, the process is accompanied by a decrease in amount of proteoglycans (complex of proteins). Because of the lower amount of proteoglycans common to lose water, since these molecules hold him. As a result, the cartilage "dries", loses its elasticity, becomes rough and dry. Because of this, is abnormal as a result of friction, the pain. Since the friction contact is "deleted", the cartilage becomes thinner, it becomes thinner. Because of the constant micro trauma to the joint formed outgrowths — osteophytes. The final stage is the complete disappearance of the cartilage.

Mistakenly people take the osteophytes behind the "salt" that is necessary "to disperse". But they do not have salt deposits and nothing to break down in the joints.

Risk factors for osteoarthritis to determine its causes. Note that the presence of one factor (eg. the age of 50 years), arthritis can occur, but the chances of the occurrence of the growth of English 2 or more reasons, such as, trauma at the age of 50 years. All the factors and can be divided into genetic, non-genetic, internal and external.

Internal factors:

  • Age. Over time the body's ability to regenerate is reduced, and the activity of the cells decreases. This reduces the production of collagen, synovial fluid of the joints, the less will be.
  • Violation of the metabolism. Osteoarthritis can cause a variety of metabolic. The most common reason is lower levels of estrogen and diabetes mellitus. Arthritis Management and a variety of metabolic diseases.
    Minerals Deficiency and vitamins. All Here is clear. If you don't, the stabilisation and association agreement the necessary substances, collagen and other substances in vain to know, what is synthetic. Pathology can develop on the background of deviations in the absorption of substances.
  • Overweight. Little influence on the cause of osteoarthritis simply become overweight person needs to weight far beyond 150 kg. But he has influence, increases the likelihood of developing osteoarthritis.
  • Developmental disorders of bones, joints. Such deviations can occur because of heredity, but for other reasons. The pathology development is not a sentence, certain rules of osteoarthritis will never happen.
  • Osteoarthritis of the hip joint
  • Arthritis. When the inflammatory process is disturbed the blood of the son flow to the joint, change, and synovial fluid composition of cartilage. Note that after getting rid of arthritis the risk of osteoarthritis remain in force, until the composition of the liquid of tissue and the joint fb back to normal.
  • Heart attack common. Eri aseptic necrosis of the hip. Develops thrombophilia — tendency to the blood of the son of clotting. But usually does not lead to blood clots in the predisposition to myocardial infarction common, therefore the development of osteoarthritis requires the involvement of other reasons.
  • Chronic stress. Depression and anxiety prolonged leads to the lower level reform, reducing the protective properties of the organism. Increases the likelihood of developing any disease, no unnecessary arthritis.

External factors:

  1. Injury. These include a variety of sprains, damage to nerves, the bony base of the joint. Such injuries are rare and with proper care, go unnoticed. But other factors may be arthritis.
  2. Excessive stress on the joint. It occurs in athletes or workers who are walking long distances. But this fact must comply with the recommendations of the coach and because of other factors, rarely leads to osteoarthritis.
  3. Surgical procedure (meniscectomy, etc.). After surgery patients are doctor prescribed treatment, bed rest, reducing and other treatments risk of complications. In the event that their violation increases the risk of osteoarthritis.

The main symptoms

To diagnose arthritis is quite simple, it can make even the unprepared person, it is enough to understand the type of pain in the joints.

The type of joint pain:

  1. Pain occurs, and increases the load alone, the pain is reduced;
  2. If the patient was lying, and his second person bends the limb, the pain to pay in the usual way (friction connection);
  3. Pain work to increase gradually, in the course of the disease is increasing.

Another characteristic symptom is a dry crunching in connection with moving. In normal joints, also the steering wheel, but the healthy joint the sound is crisp, the joints it does not hurt. Osteoarthritis of the crunch of the dry, the first time I heard that it is bad, but follow the movement constantly. This person feels a strong pain.

With the development of the disease typically there are other symptoms are: low mobility, deformity of the joint. X-ray shows reduction of the joint space, bony outgrowths of the ends of the bones, their shape changes.

Osteoarthritis occurs most often in the hip and knee joints, when he have experienced high loads. Less frequently it occurs in the shoulder and elbow joints of the fingers or toes. There is a kind of generalized osteoarthritis disease, which all affect the joints in the body.

The stage of the disease

Osteoarthritis of the foot

When osteoarthritis is damaged articular cartilage, bone and adjacent tissue. Osteoarthritis of the Stage is isolated depending on the degree of destruction of the joint.

Step 1

At this stage, degenerative processes affecting the unnecessary collagen fibers and proteoglycan molecules in the cartilage. Due to changes in the composition of or cartilage the synovial fluid is abnormal friction that leads to pain. The pain occurs after strenuous exercise, alone, he disappears. The movement of the joint, while not difficult, does not affect the muscle fibers, nerves and surrounding vessels. At this stage x-ray changes do not appear or they are meaningless.

Step 2

Due to the abnormal friction, cartilage loses elastic properties and strength, gradually thin protection and is no longer the head of the bones. As a result, he flattened, which increases the contact surface area. The edges of the connection pads formed outgrowths — osteophytes, which are clearly under x-ray.

At this stage, the pain engage patient no unnecessary load, but a small movements. The rest does not give full relief, although it can reduce the pain. Common partially lose their mobility, and the patient it also tries to load the limb.

Because of the lack of mobility poor blood circulation common. As a result changes in the composition of synovial fluid, and it becomes viscous will lose its lubricating properties, which accelerates the disease. X-ray shows reduction of the cavity of the joint space by 50-70%, it becomes noticeable deformity of the joint.

Stage 3

At this stage cartilage is fully or partially disappear. Joint flexibility is lost, the patient experiences severe pain, no unnecessary moving, but at rest. The joint space synovial fluid disappears, and, and, and the joint capsule shrink shrivel. At this stage it is possible to unnecessary, surgical treatment for the replacement of joints with artificial prosthesis. If this is not done, then there is ankylosis of the inability with the movement.


Even if 100% dedication and patient-joint is fully refurbished 1 step unnecessary osteoarthritis. 2. the stage is the deformation of the bones, so to return to the former joint mobility does not work. Action, But you can delay for a long time, if it is not avoided. 3-stage unnecessary osteoarthritis is treated by surgery.


Treatment and 1 to 2 stages of osteoarthritis using a variety of techniques. Firstly, this medication. There are different types of occupational therapy, biological treatments, massage. If you want to overweight to normalize food.

Symptomatic treatment

Pain is used to Treat non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. All the means is against many topics, in addition, they are not recommended for long term use, worsen the synthesis of proteoglycans of the joint.

The pain, it is better to use a selective anti-inflammatory drugs. They do not cause complications, it is a few against-indications and can be taken in a long time. Improves blood circulation can be used vasodilator drugs local or lotions that irritate.

Special care

He is taking a chondroprotector (glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate) — preparing for the restoration of cartilage. Glucosamine stimulates the production by chondrocytes, in addition, it is the raw material for the creation of proteoglycan molecules. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan enhances the ability to capture preserve and water. In addition, it stimulates the collagen fibers and prevent the dissolving of their enzymes.

Also used as intraarticular injections of hyaluronic acid. It is the raw material of collagen fibers and part of the synovial fluid. Treatment method the most common and proved its effectiveness. To obtain the effect of a specific treatment requires a long time — 1-1. 5 years, until the cartilage is completely restored.


The last radical method of osteoarthritis and in the treatment of. During the surgery disconnects the affected, joint head, a bed and a connection will be removed. In their place is put an artificial joint in the titanium head and high bed strength polyethylene. The whole structure is attached to the bone pins.

Surgery to replace a hip or knee joint is difficult and dangerous. Often leads to complications (pulmonary embolism, infectious diseases). Although the successful operation of the prosthesis over time, "shattered" and requires replacement. This will be paid after the maximum period of 10-15 years, the minimum term of 1-3 years.

Manual therapy

Other treatments

Many procedures aimed at removing harmful friction of the joint, improve blood circulation. Many methods of treatment for them or should be applied comprehensively alternate. Let us look at the junk to a few of the most effective treatment methods:

  1. Manual therapy. Process, the manual therapist to "pull" the joint, reducing the pressure on the cartilage. Be carried out the use of the camera would be the Procedure and regularly, but the effect of it immediately.
  2. Another way of stretching the joint hardware-summary. Effective knee joint, the knee is drawn up on a special table when using the device. 2 courses a year for 10-12 sessions per course.
  3. Therapeutic massage. After the procedure improve the blood circulation of synovial fluid, increases blood lad flow, increases the toughness of the joint. Massage is against the topic of inflammation.
  4. Ultrasound treatment. When the ultrasonic vibration is "massage" the muscles, blood vessels and tissues of the cartilage. Ultrasound speeds up the metabolism, since the biochemical exposure. He is also the thermal effect, when the mechanical energy of sound is converted into thermal energy.
  5. In teaching the treatment of osteoarthritis includes a variety of exercises, such as unusual training, which applies only in the case that osteoarthritis.
    It is in This example, the remainder of the teach, which is important you go to the specialized doctor artrolog with explanations of each exercise.

Nutrition with osteoarthritis

For a long time it was thought that osteoarthritis leads to malnutrition and that that can be improved through diet. Clear it came Today, that nutrition directly has nothing to do with osteoarthritis.

Of course, the extra weight-factors is one of them, that accelerate osteoarthritis of the period, so the diet is useful, but in vain to a certain circle of persons. Under the normalization of nutrition in osteoarthritis, the man should fully understand to get rid of excess weight.

Weight reduction is especially important for people who suffer from gonarthrosis, because the main weight of the body falls to his knees.

Weight loss

When losing weight to understand, and the man must use a few rules, which gives and simplify the task guaranteed results:

  1. The Psychological Work. The desire to "difficult to eat" paid, due to certain attitudes, a desire, or as a reward calms the nerves and sugar. Such psychological problems are devoid of motivation for weight loss and increasing stress aggravate the situation. Losing weight to deal with mental without problem, to no avail temporary effect.
  2. No weight loss, and the power of normalization. The main reason for overweight is — unhealthy diet. If you lose weight, but fails to eliminate the unbalanced diet, then after a when a person the weight back get. Man must eliminate the problem. That is, a man need to normalize is not the power, that certain "period diet", but forever.
  3. The gradual introduction of all the rules. Psychologically, to lose weight very difficult, so all the rules of a healthy diet must be introduced gradually. First, we present a single rule (for example, do not eat after 19:00) used after the same rule, introduce another.
  4. Must be removed from the menu, grilled meat, dishes cooked in oil, pastries made with white flour. Men need to eat more vegetables, fruits, plain porridge on the water. It is recommended to divide the daily ration of 5-6 meals, refrain from eating 3-4 hours before going to bed, drink more water.

Arthritis is a serious disease, but systematically in a timely manner and management approach to retreats. Beat him, men need to know its essence, mechanisms of development, risk factors, causes and development. If you apply all the recommended treatments, improve osteoarthritis is quite simple.