Many modern people learn how back pain hurts when they are young enough. Often, the first signs of traction pain appear at the age of 25-27. This is the age at which the process of spinal cord formation ends.
In this article you will learn why low back pain in the lower back and how to treat the main diseases accompanied by similar clinical symptoms at home. Find tips to choose the right specialist. Learn about modern effective treatments without compromising your health.
Let's start by saying what can damage the lumbar region - what structural tissues are there and what is responsible for it. It consists of basic bone tissue. It forms the five lumbar vertebrae and their processes, sacrum and ilio-sacral joints. The sacrum consists of 5 vertebrae, but at the age of 23-25 they turn into a triangular bone.
The cartilage is located between the vertebrae. These are intervertebral discs, each with a ring fibrosis (dense elastic membrane) and a nucleated pulposus (a gel-like internal gelatinous body). These formations ensure equal distribution of depreciation and mechanical loads. They maintain the physiological height of the intervertebral spaces. In vertebral bodies, this is very important to prevent compression and damage to the radicular nerves extending from the spinal cord through the foraminal foramen.
Nerve fiber is also a local tissue that is abundant in the lumbar region. First of all, this is the structure of the spinal cord - the central part of the human autonomic nervous system. With its help, all body functions are effectively managed. Blood vessels, hearts, liver, gallbladder, intestines, etc. Without the influence of the autonomic nervous system, a person cannot even lift his eyelashes and open his eyes. This is a very important part of the body.
The paired radicular nerves extend from the spinal cord, which is covered with rigid membranes. They come out of the side holes of each vertebra. It is responsible for the innervation of certain parts of the body. The lumbar and sacral radicular nerves pass through their branches together to form the lumbosacral plexus. The great nerves are separated from it: sciatic, femoral, inguinal, obturator, lateral subcutaneous.
The stability of the lumbar spine and the entire spine is ensured by the ligament apparatus. There are short transverse and longitudinal ties. Noses, tears and cicatricial deformities cause back pain in young and active people. In addition to ligaments, tendons and paravertebral muscles are also involved in this work.
I would like to talk a little more about the latter. The paravertebral muscles are responsible for the diffuse nourishment of the cartilage tissue of the intervertebral discs, while maintaining the stability and elasticity of the vertebrae.
The annular fibrosis and the nuclear pulp of the disc are completely devoid of their own circulatory system. They can only get fluids and nutrients during a diffuse exchange between them and the surrounding paravertebral muscles. If the muscle fiber weakens and cannot fully contract, then a degenerative destructive process begins. Intervertebral discs become dehydrated and lose their elasticity and height. They stop protecting the radicular nerves from compressing the vertebral bodies.
There are also soft tissues, blood and lymphatic vessels in the spine. They can also be exposed to various negative factors. We will talk more about the causes of pain in the lumbar region later in the article.
Causes of back pain
Before treatment, it is necessary to determine the causes of back pain - only the etiological effect ensures complete recovery of the patient.
For example, if the lumbar region is painful due to displacement of the vertebral body or intervertebral disc, then treatment of osteochondrosis with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is completely useless. Or rather, even harmful. However, replacing a dislocated vertebra or intervertebral disc is the best way to strengthen the surrounding muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Thus, the doctor completely restores the physiological condition of the tissues and relieves the patient of pain.
So, let's see what causes back pain:
- osteochondrosis - degenerative dystrophic damage to the tissues of the ring fibrosis due to diffuse malnutrition;
- complications of osteochondrosis, such as a decrease in disc height with an increase in the occupied area (protrusion phase) or rupture of the ring fibrosis (intervertebral hernia) by leaving a crack in part of the pulposus nucleus;
- instability of the position of vertebral bodies and their periodic displacement relative to the central axis and to each other according to the type of anthelisthesis and retrolisthesis;
- stenosis of the spinal canal, including displacement of the vertebral body or entry of an intervertebral hernia into the spinal canal;
- elongation and microscopic tearing of the tissue of ligaments and tendons, as well as the subsequent process of rough scarring - pressure on the nerve fiber that causes pain;
- Inflammation of muscle fibers - myositis (ischemic, infectious, aseptic, traumatic, calcifying, etc. );
- fractures and cracks of vertebral bodies and their processes, including the subsequent formation of rough calluses;
- deposition of calcium salts in the vertebrae and their processes (osteophytes);
- piriformis syndrome;
- cauda equina syndrome;
- curvature of the spine, poor posture and flexion of the pelvis;
- destruction of ilio-sacral joints of bones.
This is not a complete list of causes of back pain - before treatment, an experienced doctor will collect the patient's history, compare it with the parameters obtained during the examination and draw appropriate conclusions about what caused the development of the disease. specific disease.
The following aspects may be provocative factors in the development of pain in the lumbar region:
- overweight - the more a person's body weight, the more load is placed on the tissues of the spine, the faster it is destroyed;
- lead a sedentary lifestyle in which the back muscles are not sufficiently physically affected, do not work and the process of diffuse feeding of cartilaginous intervertebral discs is disrupted;
- improper installation of space for work and night sleep;
- violation of the rules for choosing appropriate clothing and footwear;
- heavy physical work with excessive tension in the muscles of the lumbar region;
- posture disorder, bending habit;
- injuries in the lumbar region;
- improper installation of the foot;
- Alcohol consumption and smoking - disrupt the microcirculation of blood and lymphatic fluid, which leads to disruption of tissue trophism.
Consult an experienced physician to determine a potential cause and remove it from your life. This will be the first step on the road to recovery.
Back pain - symptoms, how to check
And now let's talk about how to check for back pain - what tests are worth going through and what symptoms you should pay attention to. Before checking for back pain, you should make an appointment with a vertebrologist or neurologist. These doctors will now be able to make a correct initial diagnosis during the initial examination. Depending on this, a number of additional examinations will be recommended.
Often the examination begins with a general lumbar radiograph. In the picture, the doctor can see fractures, cracks, osteophytes, decreased height of the intervertebral spaces, joint damage and deformation, displacement of vertebral bodies. An MRI scan is needed to assess the condition of the soft tissues (discs, ligaments, tendons, muscles). According to the indications, ultrasound examination of internal organs, electromyography and electroneurography can be performed.
How to understand back pain - the answer to this question can not complicate someone who at least once faced with a similar manifestation of the disease. It is difficult to confuse back pain with anything else.
Acute, limiting, lumbago, dull, constant, etc. It can be in the form of. Depending on the nature of the pain, the doctor will be able to make an initial diagnosis. How to find out if your back hurts - you should bend forward and try to reach the ground with your fingers. There is no doubt that it causes an increase in pain attacks. Pain is associated with the destruction of spinal tissues.
The second thing worth noting is the palpation of the spinous processes of the spine. If the spine collapses, then it is always sharply painful. It is better if the research is done by another person. It is impossible to objectively compare the intensity of pressure and the degree of manifestation of pain.
Other symptoms of low back pain:
- the pain may spread to the lower extremities;
- there is weakness in the leg on the side of the lesion of the radicular nerve or its branch;
- the muscles in the focus of the lesion are extremely tense, unable to relax without therapeutic action;
- mobility is limited;
- colon and bladder dysfunction (constipation and urinary retention) may occur.
All these symptoms indicate that the spine is affected. You should consult a vertebrologist or neurologist. Treatment is given to repair the damaged tissues of the spine.
Back pain - what to do, how to treat
If you have back pain, you should be diagnosed before treatment. The fact is that the pain is just a symptom. You can only treat a disease that is accompanied by this symptom. Otherwise, nothing better will be obtained. Symptomatic treatment does not lead to recovery. They cause the disease to become chronic. This can lead to the patient's disability in the future.
So, what to do and how to treat if you suffer from osteochondrosis of the lower back. You need to start the procedure of manually pulling the spine. During the procedure, the doctor increases the distance between the vertebral bodies. It helps to expand the tissues of the intervertebral disc. Compression of the radicular nerve is eliminated. The patient completely resolves the pain syndrome.
If you have low back pain, you should eliminate any shock absorption and physical activity before treatment. At home, bed rest should be provided in the first days. Rehabilitation treatment should also be started after the pain syndrome has resolved. Various methods are used for this. Manual therapy, unlike pharmacological drugs, shows positive results.
With the help of a course of hand therapy, patients can cope with even large intervertebral hernias without surgery. For this reason, we strongly recommend that you contact your local hand therapy clinic for back pain treatment.