The joints of the human body to withstand daily stress, so they are susceptible to several destructive factors. Diseases Among the joints inflammation of the joint, it will affect and the large and small joints. Knee osteoarthritis – degenerative damage of the knee joint, which interferes with his exercise. Without proper treatment, the disease can lead to disability.
Because the disease provokes the characteristic deformation of the joint, it was given the name of deforming arthrosis of the knee joint, which is true describes the typical features of the disease. The disease is chronic, and women are more likely to have been diagnosed, suffer from obesity and the diseases and veins of the lower extremities, but it may be there for other reasons. Level age-related pay changes and the elderly.
Osteoarthritis in young people can be a trigger injuries. As a result of degenerative cartilage softens, exfoliates and covered with cracks of varying depth. If it no longer performs its functions.
Appearance of deforming arthrosis of the knee joint caused by various reasons. The traumatic factor is often the reason. Post-traumatic arthritis can develop as a result of the dislocation or the area of the fracture, as defined, as well as meniscus injuries. Usually appears gonarthrosis of the knee joint of young sports enthusiasts or those people whose Work is associated with increased mobility, lifting and carrying heavy loads.
Few people know that there can be such injury, result of treatment, when the injury has healed, but the long immobilization of the limb, which is poor circulation in this area. Because of this, and there gonarthrosis.
Increases the physical load on the knee is one of the leading factors of the disease. Most often affects athletes who are constantly active load on the knee. Young people may develop arthritis, usually of rapid changes begin after you stop the exercise.
There is also a table of the disease in those people who even in adulthood does not reduce the stress on the joints. Such athletes increases the risk of fractures and sprains, microtraumas appear. So after forty years, doctors recommend athletes reduce loads, switch to coaching. Squats Running and are best removed, as it is as these types of training in vain, the load on the knee joint. The overall affect extreme one and there is a left-hand or right-hand gonarthrosis gonarthrosis.
A major factor in the development of osteoarthritis of the knee joint should be removed meniscus. If for some reason the meniscus was removed, it is 90% of cases lead to osteoarthritis – the so-called looping of the knee during which the synovial joints experience friction, more than usual.
It seems, during endoscopy, damage to the meniscus – tear – which can be a trigger for osteoarthritis of the knee
The problem of excess weight is the importance of people with osteoarthritis. The excess weight creates unnecessary pressure on the joints. Cause is not a damaged cartilage and meniscus. And when combined with overweight, varicose veins of the lower extremities threats occur in acute arthritis.
Weak ligaments in some patients there is a congenital peculiarity, and sometimes the ligaments are affected, because other diseases. In any case, weak ligaments lead to an increased mobility of the joint, which significantly cut the articular surface. As a result of weak ligaments may not be long felt, although the patients do not experience symptoms of the real disease.
Joint pathology leads to the development of this disease. Most often the culprit for the occurrence of arthritis is arthritis – inflammation of joint joints. Arthritis detected typical signs of deterioration of the synovial fluid, pathological changes in the cartilage, swelling, redness, soft tissue. Although cured of osteoarthritis is a chronic process leading to osteoarthritis.
Violations of the metabolic processes often lead to diseases of the musculoskeletal system. The bones of the joints and and get less nutrients minerals the strength of the tissues. Kun deficiency and bone cartilage surface is exposed to destructive processes, so even a small load is primary osteoarthritis.
Osteoarthritis of the knee occurs in a set of features that are hard to miss. Marked by are not felt in vain was published on the first degree of development of pathology, but the second and third degrees to give a clear symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee:
- the pain of the main characters is one, which is evident not at once. Interesting is the fact that during the development of osteoarthritis, the pain can be felt even a few months years or, when not impaired by disease. The pain symptoms are usually the first discomfort during exercise, walking or running, but it works and pinching of the meniscus. The second degree of osteoarthritis pain in joints felt stronger, development and third degree the painful sensations occur even at rest. The attacks are getting worse even without after a short walk a strong load on the joint, so the patient you are trying to save the knees;
- strain – symptoms are becoming more pronounced in the third stage of the development of osteoarthritis. The knee to retain its normal form, but a little show swollen, edematous. The accession of arthritis, the knee turns red, becomes hot and painful to the touch;
- the crunch of osteoarthritis appears in the second and third degree of the disease development. Crunchy sounds different than normal clicks, you can hear that sometimes, when the extension and flexion of the knee. When arthritis symptoms are characterized by dry, rough voice, which occurs suddenly and is accompanied by pain;
- synovitis – the accumulation of a certain amount of fluid in the joint cavity. It includes and normal. But leads to the accumulation of an excessive amount of development of cyst – more than useless noticeable Baker's cyst, which can be defined in the unbent position of the foot;
- limited mobility of the knee is a typical sign of pathology, as are try-patients first, protect yourself from the pain consciously, but can late stage osteoarthritis straighten the limb. The third degree of the development of deforming arthrosis of the knee (DOA) it will lead to loss and movement. Patients adapt to the move with bent legs, will use the funds to support.
The degree of development
Knee arthritis progresses in three stages.
Osteoarthritis of 1 degree of the pain is unnecessary minor occurs during active exercise the knee joint. Published for the first degree fluid can accumulate in the abdominal cavity, which in the second and third it is a cyst. The progression of pain occur in the process of moving, but quickly over. Externally, the deformation of the knee joint invisible, so the osteoarthritis diagnosis can be difficult.
Pain in osteoarthritis is also shown when the external signs of the disease is not noticeable
When the disease secondary damage to the cartilage more significant. If the x-ray, so it is a noticeable step in the growth of bones. At any time the movement of the knee is sharp, sudden pain, but return to the comfortable position, the knee is no longer sore. In the second stage, the DOA you can hear the typical osteoarthritis of the crunch. With the progression of the problems of extension and knee flexion worse. The deformity becomes noticeable externally.
Osteoarthritis of the knee joint in the third degree is characterized by a significant thinning of the cartilage. Gradually the cartilage wears pois so that the bone is exposed in some areas. X-ray showing a significant amount of osteophytes – bony growths, salts, which appeared in the joint cavity. Externally the changes are very marked, the patient and concerned about the constant pain. The diagnosis is simple – the lack of visual inspection and control is Roetgen.
With the progression of this degree, osteoarthritis can lead to complete loss of functionality. Any degree of development of pathology can be associated with osteoarthritis of the knee.
A group of the most active drugs against osteoarthritis – non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This is the first cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, he can relieve the inflammation, swelling, promote the development and early recovery. These drugs have significant limitations, so you can't use them without a doctor's recommendation. For example, he can worsen stomach ulcers, heart diseases, pathology of the organs of rochevilaine. Forbidden by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and pregnancy.
The second group of tools – chondroprotectors, features that improve the cartilage. They are used in osteoarthritis to restore the correct structure of the cartilage, because it process the resolve to lose important well and parts of the glucosamine chondroitin. That is why almost all of chondroprotectors consist of both these substances, but some drugs a single component. With the help of these medicines can help patients in the first stage and the second disease, but not in the third, when irreversible changes.
During conservative treatment, the doctor will give advice on nutrition. If you are overweight the patient, the man must stick to the diet to normalize weight. How to strengthen a stable weight tell also becomes the doctor. Also not recommended to eat salt much, but better to fill your diet with calcium, vitamins and minerals. It would be useful, jelly, aspic.
General surgery osteoarthritis – arthroscopy, but there are also other measures. Treatment of osteoarthritis is usually the size of the second and third degree where conservative treatment does not help.
If it is necessary, minimally invasive intervention, for example, fluid accumulation in the knee joint, it is possible to avoid the puncture. Cavity of the knee joint on the puncture and pumped extra kp-liquid. Method how to diagnose the disease, so at the same time to apply the treatment. The liquid is taken the initial stages of a minimal amount, but it will significantly improve the health of patients. Then, when researching the biomaterial is derived from the second part, and the joint cavity are corticosteroids.
Arthroplasty is sometimes the only option for patients with osteoarthritis of the third degree
Arthroscopy is spread all over. A small incision Through the skin presents several tools that can help you to carry out joint research and the necessary manipulations of it. Endoscopy it is possible to remove particles of tissue, which is separated from the cartilage, but there is always a table, that there is a secondary gonarthrosis.
If it is badly damaged, it is necessary to perform a joint osteotomy. This is a must have-ranging impact on the joints, causing it to slightly and podpilivaya will be set to the desired angle. Surgery rehabilitation for longer after, but the effect lasts longer.
Significant destruction of the joint elements lead to a complete immobility of the limb. The joint does not perform its task, and thus requires replacement and need to do the operation. Knee replacement surgery – not a cheap activity, but it gives one the opportunity to return to the patient movement of the limb. A different Set of knee prostheses made of plastic, ceramics or metal. It has durable construction, which enables a few decades to forget about the problems.
Physical treatments can be applied in vain then, once passed the acute stage and the patient is recovering.
Among the techniques actively used:
- the ozone – effect on the affected joint with ozone, and injected into the substance injection or can apply a topical treatment. Such patients is very effective, so often used to treat specific diseases, such as osteoarthritis. Treatment give the possibility of improving the blood circulation to the problem area, to achieve anti-inflammatory analgesic and effect. Treatment and at the Same time the whole of glucocorticoids;
- kinesio therapy – treatment full with the help of special complex of exercises. The load is created based on individual data, kun and exercises for the whole using special equipment, to strengthen the joints. The difference between kinesio therapy from occupational therapy to active the effect of not only osteoarthritis of the knee, but also throughout the body.
Use not only ozone-occupational therapy ny, but occupational therapy. There is more good results method to remove the osteoarthritis knee exercises on Bubnovskiy, Evdokimenko, Dikul. The course exercises and after them, it may be necessary to use a special knee brace – the brace, to strengthen the right or left knee.